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The surprising origins of Europeans

first_imgThe answers to the human past are out there, hidden in the DNA of bones in ancient burial mounds and unmarked graves.Increasingly, those answers are coming to light as geneticists at Harvard and elsewhere employ sophisticated methods to extract that DNA and make it readable despite the ravages of time.On Tuesday, geneticists from Harvard Medical School (HMS) and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT highlighted those evolving techniques and talked about recent findings that revealed that a previously unknown group made a major contribution to the gene pool of modern Europeans and Native Americans. They also discussed the result of preliminary investigations that suggest that an ancient civilization located between the Black and Caspian seas may have created a major group of modern languages, spanning English, German, Russian, Urdu, Punjabi, and Hindi.Michael McCormick, the Francis Goelet Professor of Medieval History, said the new techniques are opening “an extraordinary window on the human past” and make a powerful partner to traditional historical and archaeological techniques in understanding humanity’s hidden history.“You and I have the extraordinary privilege of living in a time of revolutionary discovery … that extends advances of technology in the life sciences that are transforming the world today to … disciplines that are transforming our understanding of the human past, dissolving the timeworn barriers between history and prehistory, between science and the humanities,” McCormick said. “Human genetics are another extraordinary window on a vanished world of migrations and matings that take you back literally to the dawn of human time.”McCormick introduced a talk at the Harvard-Yenching Library by Harvard Medical School genetics Professor David Reich, an associate at the Broad Institute, and Nick Patterson, the senior computational biologist at the Broad and visiting scientist and a research fellow in genetics at HMS and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.McCormick introduced a talk at the Harvard-Yenching Library by Harvard Medical School genetics Professor David Reich (left) and Nick Patterson, the senior computational biologist at the Broad.The lecture, “What’s New in Genomic Archaeology? The Peopling of Europe from Ancient and Modern DNA,” was sponsored by the Initiative for the Science of the Human Past at Harvard, whose steering committee McCormick chairs.Reich highlighted recent research indicating that ancient European history was more complex than previously had been thought. Researchers had believed that Middle Eastern farmers pushed into Europe 8,500 years ago, after the advent of agriculture, displacing and blending with hunter-gatherer populations there over several thousand years.First, Reich said, the genetic data clarifies that people migrated into the region, bringing farming with them, rather than agricultural practices spreading alone as they were learned, adopted, and passed along by different societies coming into contact with the cultures practicing them.As expected, the genetic data showed that modern Europeans hold a mix of genes from Middle Eastern farmers and the European hunter-gatherers who preceded them into Europe. But it also shows that modern Europeans have genetic contributions from a third group, originating in ancient north Eurasia, that was unknown before research from Reich and collaborators was published in September. It appears that this group eventually spread not just into Europe, but also to North America, since their genes are represented in Native Americans.That ancient north Eurasian population was apparently replaced in the lands between, however, because there’s no trace of their DNA in modern Siberians.Patterson discussed early work that investigated the rise of one of the world’s predominant language groups: Indo-European. Hundreds of languages belong to the family today, including some of the most widely spoken, such as English, Spanish, Russian, and Hindi.Patterson said that linguistic evidence has tracked the ancestral language, called “late proto-Indo-European” to about 3,500 years ago in the Caucasus, among a people who had wheeled vehicles at a time when they were just being put into use.Genetic evidence ruled out one likely related group in the region, the Yamnaya, because their DNA showed the group had hunter-gatherer ancestry, which is inconsistent with the fact that two Indo-European groups, Armenians and Indians, don’t share it, Patterson said. That made Patterson look south, to the Maikop civilization, which likely had significant contact with the Yamnaya, as a plausible culture where Indo-European languages originated. Samples have been obtained from Maikop burial sites, but the DNA work to test that proposal is pending, Patterson said.Such testing is dependent on sophisticated techniques, Reich said. When DNA can be extracted from bones found at burial sites, most of it actually is microbial DNA from the organisms that have colonized the bones since its owners’ death. In addition, researchers have to be careful that samples aren’t contaminated by handling after they are unearthed.Reich’s lab uses a technique that targets 390,000 sites of variation on the human genome, extracts them from background DNA, and allows them to generate genome-wide data.“A lot of it is microbial. Typically only 1 percent comes from the individual whose bone it was,” Reich said.last_img read more

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Case Study: BCU becomes a card contender

first_imgWhen $2.5 Billion BCU, Vernon Hills, Ill., revamped its card portfolio in 2016, it wanted to deliver high-value rewards with a focus on simplicity and transparency.The CU launched its new Cash Rewards Visa card in April and today returns 1.5 percent cash back (unlimited) to members on all purchases, with no annual fee and an APR as low as 10.15 percent. The CU’s revamped Travel Rewards Visa card, which rolled out last November, returns two points per every dollar of purchases (unlimited), with no annual fee and an APR as low as 10.15 percent. The value proposition for both products is designed to target Signature-eligible members, which helps the economics of the program through higher interchange.Targeted Marketing, Lots of ItWith a focus on its two restructured rewards programs, the CU leverages a variety of marketing channels to generate new accounts, including member-facing, direct, online and mobile. Product messaging reinforces key features and benefits to differentiate the product from other cards in the market.“We analyze risk criteria, spending behavior and other factors to determine which members are most likely to respond to a rewards product offer,” explains CUES member Mike Fox, director/lending product management for BCU. continue reading » 3SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

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Drinking water in Vodice polluted with faeces: Tourists flee, renters in despair

first_imgTap water in one part of Vodice is mixed with faeces and the water is not drinkable, tourists leave Vodice, the hosts lose money, and Vodice suffocates in the stench caused by faeces. For the third day, residents and tourists of Vodice do not have drinking water in the middle of the tourist season, and the problem arose in a nearby new building where an illegal well was unauthorizedly connected to the water supply pipeline by investors, contaminating the drinking water supply system. Dnevnik.hrThe waterworks also spoke about this case, and we are transmitting their announcement in full:”On July 25, 2017. at around 8 am, an employee of Vodovod i odvodnje doo was informed by the citizens of Vodice from Blata and Prvićka streets about a change in the appearance of the color and smell of the water. Based on the report, the employee of Vodovod i odvodnje doo went to the disputed place and determined that about 30 houses are supplied with unhealthy water.The cause of the pollution was an illegal well for irrigating a green area made on a drinking water supply pipeline owned by Vodovod i odvodnje doo at the time of the construction of a residential building with eight apartments at the address in Vodice, Prvićka ulica bb.It was established that the illegal well was unauthorizedly connected to the water supply pipeline by a natural person – investor and contractor of the residential building in question in Vodice, Prvićka ulica bb, which contaminated our drinking water supply system. On the same day, a water test was performed by the Institute of Public Health and an internal test by Vodovod i odvodnje doo, and both findings showed that the water was not healthy, and the service users were informed immediately after learning – it is stated in the statement of ‘Vodovod’.’.A picture of our tourism It is interesting that today in the 21st century in Vodice, who live very well and earn money from tourism, the residents of Blata and Prvićka streets do not have sewerage, but have septic tanks. Where is the huge income from tourism spent? Tourism itself must provide a better quality of life to the local population, because not everyone lives off tourism, and in Croatia even less because tourist consumption is not dispersed locally, except in most accommodation and catering facilities on the waterfront and beaches.This is a great shame for Croatia, including Vodice, and a negative advertisement for our tourism.Vodice is a classic example of illegal construction of apartments without any plan and strategy, and how this illegal construction has irreversibly destroyed the landscape and destination. The image and opportunity of our tourism, just a short-term race for money, without any strategic development. The apartments expanded on their own, one bigger, the other smaller, the third wider without any permits in most cases, meaning illegally, and the infrastructure from sewerage, electricity, water, parking did not develop… That is why we have a problem with overloaded sewerage network today, less water and low pressure, electricity, parking, etc.… Only because we have not strategically, planned and sustainably developed our tourist destinations.Of course, this is an isolated case, but unfortunately not the first. It is not only the investor’s fault, the entrepreneur Zoran Josipović from Vodice who illegally connected the water supply pipeline, but the long-term poor management of the city of Vodice and the fact that he has not solved infrastructure problems for years, as he did not provide sewerage throughout the city. We are talking about 2017 and the city that lives from tourism.Terrible, but sadly true.last_img read more

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Ebola fear overshadows Afcon 2015

first_imgThe 30th edition of the Africa Cup of Nations kicks off tomorrow, with organisers, players and fans hoping the tournament can thrive in the face of adversity.It was only in November that Equatorial Guinea took over as hosts from Morocco, whose plea to postpone the finals over fears about the spread of Ebola was rejected by the Confederation of African Football (Caf).With concerns over the short time for Equatorial Guinea to prepare, worries about potentially poor attendances at matches in remote parts of the country and doubts about the infrastructure and facilities, football itself has taken a back seat in the build-up to the 16-team event which ends on February 8.Meanwhile organisers have said all players and visitors entering Equatorial Guinea will be tested for Ebola.The deadly virus, which broke out in West Africa in March 2014 and has claimed the lives of 8,386 people in six countries according to World Health Organisation figures up to 12 January, has cast a dark shadow over the tournament.However, there are no reported cases in Equatorial Guinea and the country’s government has taken measures to prevent Ebola from reaching their soil, including hiring the expertise of a team of Cuban doctors. Julia Nchama Abeso Avomo, the administrative attache at the country’s embassy in London, said everyone entering Equatorial Guinea will go through a short medical check upon arrival as a precautionary measure.Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia are the countries worst affected by Ebola. Guinea are the only qualifiers for the finals – and their achievement is remarkable given the circumstances.The team were unable to play any matches at home and also suffered because of the stigma of the disease.Borussia Monchengladbach winger Ibrahima Traore says the players were tested for Ebola in the dressing room, just before a vital match against Togo.“We felt disrespected in other countries; to us it was like some people were seeing us Guineans not as human beings but as a disease,” Traore told BBC Sport. “Now we have to forget all that and we have to perform well in Equatorial Guinea. It’s something really important for our country and all the people who are suffering due to this disease.“We want to show everyone a great image of Guinea.“We got a $30,000 (£19,700) bonus for qualifying and I gave that money directly to charities fighting the disease. At the Africa Cup of Nations, we want to fight for the people who are struggling due to Ebola.”last_img read more

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WHS Daily Bulletin: Nov. 11, 2014

first_img*Classic Movie club will be showing the movie “The King and I” at 3:30 on Thursday, November 20 in room 205. Bring a friend! *Seniors: Please start turning in your needed pictures for the graduation video, along with your top 3 song choices to be in the video. You can turn them into Mrs. Vaughn in room 203, Leah Nelson or Shayna Templeton. Please turn them in ASAP. *Reminder to Athletes: November 10 – 16 is Fall Buffer Week. No activities in any school gyms during this week. *The tennis banquet is tonight at 6:00 in the commons. Please bring your uniforms to turn in. *SENIORS! If you are interested in attending Cowley County Community College- don’t miss out on their Senior Day, November 12.  Visit Mrs. Brown in the counseling office for more details. *There is a sign-up sheet in the office for Special K Basketball. Please sign up by November 25. Guidance Office News:College visits during lunch:Tuesday, November 11- Pittsburg StateThursday, November 13- Fort Hays CollegeTuesday, Nov. 18 – Hesston College.Follow us on Twitter. *Upward Bound will be here Wed. Nov. 12th in the commons during lunch if you’d like to speak with them about signing up for a great program! Close Forgot password? Please put in your email: Send me my password! Close message Login This blog post All blog posts Subscribe to this blog post’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Subscribe to this blog’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Follow the discussion Comments Logging you in… Close Login to IntenseDebate Or create an account Username or Email: Password: Forgot login? Cancel Login Close WordPress.com Username or Email: Password: Lost your password? Cancel Login Dashboard | Edit profile | Logout Logged in as Admin Options Disable comments for this page Save Settings You are about to flag this comment as being inappropriate. Please explain why you are flagging this comment in the text box below and submit your report. The blog admin will be notified. Thank you for your input. There are no comments posted yet. Be the first one! Post a new comment Enter text right here! Comment as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments Comments by IntenseDebate Enter text right here! Reply as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Cancel Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments Today’s News*The following students will be dismissed at 2:55  today for Novice Scholars’ Bowl at Conway Springs:Elisha StoneAdrianna YoungJacob MichaelisJayden KingCarson LeGrand *SENIORS: Jostens will be here today during lunch to collect your order and $60.00 deposit. If you have not ordered your class ring; you may do so at this time. Submitted to Sumner Newscow — Today’s Wellington High School bulletin for Tuesday, November 11, 2014:Tuesday• Veterans Day Program 10 a.m.• Scholars’ Bowl at Conway Springs, 4 p.m.• Tennis Banquet, 6 p.m. WednesdayThursday• Scholars’ Bowl at Bishop Carroll.Tuesday’s lunch: Pigs in a blanket, potato wedges, broccoli w cheese, applesauce, jello. Wednesday’s lunch: Fajita wrap, romaine and tomato, spanish rice, steamed carrots, peaches. *STUDENTS: If you are participating in a winter sport and do not have a physical or concussion form on file, you must do so before you will be allowed to practice. You can pick up the forms in the counselor’s office.last_img read more

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Four counties chosen for project to grow junior golf

first_img Each of the four counties will have a bespoke plan which recognises their particular challenges and targets, including the need to involve and train volunteers. They’ll be supported by Lee Dolby and the England Golf network of club support offers and regional managers.  Cheshire, Durham, Lincolnshire and Somerset are joining the pilot project which aims to get more under-18s playing and joining clubs.  “I am very much looking forward to working with them over the next couple of years to see how much of an impact we can have and how we can inspire a love of golf to last a lifetime.” This will include offering access to research, workshops and educational resources and help with marketing to a younger audience.  This will include offering access to research, workshops and educational resources and help with marketing to a younger audience.  2 Aug 2017 Four counties chosen for project to grow junior golf The latest England Golf Club Questionnaire, which is carried out every two years and tracks trends, shows a decline in junior membership. On average, each club lost three boy members between 2014 and 2016 and altogether juniors account for just seven per cent of club members.  Each of the four counties will have a bespoke plan which recognises their particular challenges and targets, including the need to involve and train volunteers. They’ll be supported by Lee Dolby and the England Golf network of club support offers and regional managers.  Four counties chosen for project to grow junior golf The latest England Golf Club Questionnaire, which is carried out every two years and tracks trends, shows a decline in junior membership. On average, each club lost three boy members between 2014 and 2016 and altogether juniors account for just seven per cent of club members.  Four counties have been selected to work in partnership with England Golf over the next two years to get more juniors involved in the sport.  Cheshire, Durham, Lincolnshire and Somerset are joining the pilot project which aims to get more under-18s playing and joining clubs.  Lee Dolby, England Golf’s Young People Manager, commented: “It’s vital that we address the challenges facing junior golf. These four counties have enormous commitment and enthusiasm for developing junior golf and involving more young people.  Four counties have been selected to work in partnership with England Golf over the next two years to get more juniors involved in the sport.  “I am very much looking forward to working with them over the next couple of years to see how much of an impact we can have and how we can inspire a love of golf to last a lifetime.” Lee Dolby added: “By working closely with counties, rather than individual clubs, we can look at wider solutions which, eventually, we can share across the country.”  Lee Dolby, England Golf’s Young People Manager, commented: “It’s vital that we address the challenges facing junior golf. These four counties have enormous commitment and enthusiasm for developing junior golf and involving more young people.  Lee Dolby added: “By working closely with counties, rather than individual clubs, we can look at wider solutions which, eventually, we can share across the country.”last_img read more

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